The days in the Jewish calendar set aside for fasting by the whole community. In addition to the major fasts of Yom Kippur and the Ninth of Av, there are three minor fasts commemorating events connected with the downfall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in ancient times. These are the fasts of 10 Tevet, the 17 Tammuz, and the Fast of Gedaliah on 3 Tishri.
In addition to these three there is another public fast day on the day before Purim known as the Fast of Esther. Curiously enough, this fast day is observed by the Ethiopian Jews (see FALASHAS) but while the Shulhan Arukh does refer to the Fast of Esther as obligatory, it allows certain relaxations. The Fast of the First-Born on the eve of Passover is much later and is treated in even more lenient fashion.
Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies.