A technical term taken from communication theory which, when applied in an educational context, refers to a formal response from teacher to learner about their work or progress; or from learner to teacher in answer to a question, problem, or task which has been set. In the first case, a teacher's feedback to the learner can take the form of either a spoken or a written appraisal of the learner's performance, including advice on what areas need to be improved and which should be regarded as strengths. This may be referred to as formative assessment. In the second case, learners who have been set a task, individually or in groups, may be asked to ‘feed back’ their findings or conclusions to the teacher and the rest of the class, for the purposes both of providing the teacher with an opportunity for the assessment of students' learning, and also of providing an opportunity for peer learning, where students learn from one another. This process is also known as debriefing. If learners are asked to evaluate a lesson or module or course, their spoken or written responses are again referred to as ‘student (or learner, or pupil) feedback'.