An organized visit for pupils or students under teacher supervision for the purpose of carrying out a field study or some activity relevant to their curriculum. Such trips might take the form of a visit to a museum or art gallery, or of activities such as abseiling or canoeing. In the case of younger learners, parental permission must be formally given, and expectations about standards of learner behaviour clearly articulated. For all field trips, observance of health and safety measures are of central importance. The responsibility of teachers for pupils' safety and behaviour on such trips means that pupil–teacher ratios must reflect the need for close supervision. In recent years there has been a growing reluctance among some teachers to take part in out‐of‐school visits such as field trips for fear of litigation.