Physical damage to the foot. The foot is the site of many acute injuries (e.g. fractures, strains, sprains, and dislocations) and overuse injuries (e.g. tendinitis, bursitis, and stress fractures). Overuse injuries are usually caused by forceful repeated stress on the small bones and soft tissues, which have to take the whole weight of the body during a sport. Good footwear is essential for protection (see training shoe). Many overuse injuries of the foot are associated with anatomical abnormalities, which exaggerate the effect of the repetitive stresses of sports. The most common abnormalities that affect the lower leg are fist feet, feet that excessively pronate (roll inward when an athlete runs), femoral anteversion (turned in thigh bones), high arches, genu valgum (knock-knees), and genu varum (bow legs).
Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.