Foramina and canals of the bones of the skull

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Alveolar foraminaMaxillaPosterior superior alveolar vessels and nerves

Anterior ethmoidal foramenEthmoidAnterior ethmoidal nerve and artery

Anterior nasal apertureMargins are maxilla and nasal bonesAnterior opening to the nasal cavity in the skull

Carotid canalTemporalInternal carotid artery carotid plexus of nerves

ChoanaeMargins are sphenoid, palatine, and vomerPosterior opening of the nasal cavity to nasopharynx

Condylar canalOccipitalEmissary veins

Cribriform foraminaEthmoidCranial nerve I

External acoustic meatus (external auditory meatus)TemporalClosed by tympanic membrane

Facial canalTemporalCranial nerve VII

Foramen caecumFrontalEmissary vein

Foramen lacerumBetween sphenoid and occipitalDeep petrosal nerve

Foramen magnumOccipitalVertebra arteries, spinal cord – brainstem, spinal roots of cranial nerve XI

Foramen ovaleSphenoidMandibular nerve (V3) and accessory meningeal nerve

Foramen petrosumSphenoidLesser petrosal nerve

Foramen rotundumSphenoidMaxillary nerve (V2)

Foramen spinosumSphenoidMiddle meningeal artery meningeal branch of V3

Greater palatine foramenBetween maxillary and palatineGreater palatine nerve and artery

Hiatus for the greater petrosal nerveTemporalGreater petrosal nerve

Hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerveTemporalLesser petrosal nerve

Hypoglossal canalOccipitalHypoglossal nerve

Incisive canalMaxillaSee Incisive foramina

Incisive foraminaMaxillaNasopalatine nerve sphenopalatine artery

Inferior orbital fissureBetween sphenoid and maxillaMaxillary division of trigeminal and infraorbital artery and inferior ophthalmic vein

Infraorbital foramenMaxillaInfraorbital nerve branch of V2 and vessels

Internal acoustic meatusTemporalCranial nerve VII & VIII and labrynthine artery (internal auditory artery)

Jugular foramenBetween temporal and occipitalInternal jugular vein, cranial nerve IX, X, XI, posterior meningeal artery

Lesser palatine foraminaPalatineLesser palatine nerve and artery

Mandibular canalMandibleSee Mandibular foramen

Mandibular foramenMandibleInferior alveolar (inferior dental) nerve and vessels

Mastoid foramenTemporalAuricular branch of cranial nerve X, branches of occipital artery

Mental foramenMandibleMental nerve and vessels

Nasal foraminaNasalemissary vessels

Nasolacrimal canalFormed by maxillary and lacrimalDrains into nasal cavity (inferior meatus)

Optic canalSphenoidOphthalmic artery and cranial nerve II

Palatovaginal canalBetween sphenoid and palatinePharyngeal branch of maxillary artery and pharyngeal nerve

Parietal foramenParietalEmissary veins

Petrotympanic fissureTemporalChorda tympani nerve

Piriform aperture See Anterior nasal aperture

Posterior ethmoidal foramenEthmoidPosterior ethmoidal nerve and artery

Pterygoid canalSphenoidVidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal

Pterygopalatine canalBetween maxilla and perpendicular plate of palatineGreater palatine nerve and vessels

Sphenopalatine foramenBetween sphenoid and palatineNasopalatine nerve sphenopalatine artery

Stylomastoid foramenTemporalCranial nerve VII and stylomastoid artery

Superior orbital fissureBetween greater and lesser wings of the sphenoidOphthalmic division of V1, cranial nerve III, IV, VI, ophthalmic vein

Supraorbital notch (foramen)FrontalSupraorbital nerve and vessels

Tympanomastoid fissureTemporalAuricular branch of cranial nerve X

Zygomaticofacial foramenZygomaticZygomaticofacial nerve and vessels

Zygomatico-orbital foramenZygomaticZygomatico-orbital nerve Zygomaticotemporal nerve

Zygomaticotemporal foramenZygomaticZygomaticotemporal nerve

From A Dictionary of Dentistry in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: Dentistry.