(b 18 Apr. 1892; d Kuibyshev, 8 Jun. 1939)
Russian drama director and ballet master. He invented and taught his own system of physical movement, and as director of his own ensemble (1921–5) created his highly controversial work Dance of Machines in which he demonstrated his vision of a modernist dance which would incorporate ‘dances of the pavement, of rushing motor cars…the grandeur of skyscrapers’. He was chief regisseur in Kharkov (1929–34), in Kiev (1934–6), and in Kuibyshev (1938–9).