Four key aspects of China's post-Mao development. The need to modernize agriculture, industry, national defence, and science and technology was implied in a speech by Mao Zedong in 1963, but in the Cultural Revolution ideology was considered to be more important than economic development. After Deng Xiaoping came to power, the Four Modernizations began to take priority. Training of scientists, engineers, and managers, and the reform of agriculture by the “responsibility system” (the transfer of management power from the commune to the individual) are key examples.
Subjects: World History.