John Fowles was born in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, and attended Bedford School. After graduating from Oxford (1950) he taught in Britain and Europe. His first novel, The Collector (1963), was an immediate success and was subsequently filmed. He then wrote a philosophical study, The Aristos (1964), and followed this with his second novel, The Magus (1965), set on a Greek island. Like The Collector, The Magus deals with the theme of sexuality and power, a theme that Fowles explored further in The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969). This won the W. H. Smith Award (1969) and was also made into a successful film (1981). Later publications include Poems (1973), a volume of novellas entitled The Ebony Tower (1974), and the novels Daniel Martin (1977), Mantissa (1982), and A Maggot (1985). He also edited the previously unpublished work of the seventeenth-century antiquarian John Aubrey, Monumenta Britannica (1980–82). Fowles produced no original work after suffering a stroke in the mid-1980s.