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Prefix for proteins of the forkhead family of which many are now recognized, ranging from FoxA to FoxS. The FoxO (foxo) subfamily are key components of the insulin signalling cascade. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor, through the PI3kinase signalling system, stimulate phosphorylation of FoxO by protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) so that FoxO is retained in the cytoplasm and cannot act as a transcription factor. FoxP2 is involved in brain development and mutations result in disruption of neural pathways essential for human speech, although there are other effects. Defects in FoxP2 in a family with speech dysfunction led journalists to claim it as the gene for speech. Mutation in the mouse FoxP3 gene gives rise to the *‘scurfy’ mouse.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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