Qualifications in English, mathematics, and information communications technology (ICT) in the UK, which are available from entry level to level 2 on the National Qualifications Framework. The introduction of the new Functional Skills awards was announced as part of the 14–19 Education and Skills White Paper of 2005. They are being developed for all learners aged 14+ to strengthen the practical skills necessary for employment, and for access to further and higher education. They will build on the literacy and numeracy strategies at primary schools as well as the secondary school Key Stage 3 strategy, and will be a mandatory component of all learning programmes at Key Stage 4 and beyond. It is expected that functional skills will replace key skills and Skills for Life qualifications. Following national trials, English and ICT functional skills awards will be available in 2009, and mathematics in 2010.