Site in central Guinea, West Africa. Location of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century popular uprisings that sought to unseat non-Muslim rulers and institute Islamic reform. In the 1720s two Fulbe leaders, Karamoko Alfa and Ibrahima Sori, led a jihad against the non-Muslim rulers; the almaamate (Fula, from Arabic, meaning “imamate”) was created. By the mid-eighteenth century the rulers became part of an oligarchy whose principal goal was to control trade from the Upper Niger to the coast. Uthman Dan Fodio, founder of one of the greatest states of nineteenth-century Africa, the Fulani empire of Sokoto, was born to one of these ruling families.