The successor state to the medieval Takrur kingdom, located in the Senegal River basin, West Africa. Nasir al-Din began a popular movement of Islamic reform here in the 1660s. His demand that rulers submit to him as imam was met with military force; Nasir al-Din was killed in battle in 1673. In the 1780s Abdul Kader became almaami (religious leader or imam) but his forces were unable to spread revolution to the surrounding states. In 1806 he and the original goals of the reform-minded revolution died, defeated by the non-Muslim Kaarta kingdom, the Bundu state, and a subversive element within Futa Toro itself.