(b. Kalinin region of Russia, 24 Nov. 1910; d. Moscow, 24 Oct. 1974)
Russian; Member of the Politburo 1956–61 Furtseva was the daughter of Russian working-class parents and educated as an engineer. Having joined the CPSU in 1930 she held minor posts in the party and Comsomol until 1942, when she was appointed district party secretary for Moscow. In 1950 she became Second Party Secretary for Moscow and from 1954 until 1957 held the key position of First Party Secretary for Moscow. In 1952 she became a candidate member of the Central Committee and her prospects were greatly strengthened by the rise of her close ally, Nikita Khrushchev. In 1956 she was appointed full member and secretary of the Central Committee, and a full member of the Presidium (later known as the Politburo), of which she was the first female member in 1957. But in 1960 she was removed as secretary of the Central Committee and appointed to the less important state position of Minister of Culture, which she held until her death. Her job was to ensure that the Soviet intelligentsia toed the party's line. In 1961 she was removed as member of the Presidium.