(d. ca. 1930)
Tatar Muslim Communist intellectual from Volga who reinterpreted Communism for the Muslim context during the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Understood Communism as a practical doctrine for organizing underground movements, educating and agitating the masses, articulating national rights, and gaining political support. Supported revolutionary national government as a necessary prerequisite to proletarian rule, deemphasizing the concept of class struggle. Declared all Muslims proletarians due to oppression suffered under colonialist governments. His philosophy, known as Sultangaliyevism, served as a rallying point for Muslim nationalist sentiments. Expelled from the Communist Party in 1923 for deviations from the party line. Imprisoned, exiled, and disappeared.