A pioneer in the methods and techniques of public opinion polling and analysis, creator of the Gallup Poll, Gallup was a firm believer in the concept that consumer attitude research had to precede creative work. Gallup started in 1922 as an interviewer for D'Arcy Advertising, St Louis, and later proposed research approaches in his University of Iowa PhD thesis. At Northwestern University in 1932, his male-female copy appeal ratings (economy, efficiency, sex, vanity, quality) caught Ray Rubicam's attention and Gallup then joined Y&R. The copy research department he created and ran for 16 years also trained research leaders. On leaving Young & Rubicam in 1947 with Claude Robinson, Gallup established his Gallup Poll and ‘impact’ evaluations as national influences.