Painter and printmaker. Primarily a landscape artist, he also painted figural scenes, sometimes set indoors. Particularly interested in the visual and emotional effects of light, he developed a personal variant of impressionism emphasizing bold and sometimes unnaturalistic color harmonies that suggest postimpressionist and even fauve precedents. Born on a farm near North Manchester, Indiana, he began his training at Cincinnati's Art Academy. In Philadelphia he studied for five years at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where Thomas Anshutz ranked as his most important teacher, while working also as an illustrator and portrait painter. Upon return in 1907 from a two-year visit to Europe, he acquired a country residence near Lumberville, Pennsylvania, a Bucks County village on the Delaware River not far from New Hope. In the mid-1920 he relinquished his Philadelphia home to live there permanently. Regarded as a leading New Hope artist, he also taught for many years at the Pennsylvania Academy. Although some landscapes display carefully rendered detail in combination with glowing but naturalistic light, his most striking and individual work combines rich and febrile brushwork, intense coloration, and carefully regulated spatial recession in a highly charged and decorative style. At once mysterious and dynamic, Tohickon (Smithsonian American Art Museum, 1920) depicts a darkened tree and other sinuous vegetation sprawling across the foreground and impeding a view of the sunlit hillside across the Tohickon River. The image's patterned surface displays the artist's characteristic palette of purple-blue shadows, greens from grayed to acidic, and highlights in warmer tones.