Fortress founded in the 3rd century bc as a summer residence for the Armenian kings of the Yervandid and Artashesid dynasties. Situated on a naturally defended hilltop above the Azat River. The strongly walled enclosure contains a Graeco‐Roman temple, probably built by King Trdat III (287–330 bc), a bath‐house of the 3rd century bc, and the ruins of a two‐storey royal palace. Of later date is a round church built in ad 897. An earthquake in 1679 damaged the site very badly but reconstruction work between 1969 and 1975 has restored the temple to its former glory.
H. L. Petrosyan, 1988, Garnin IX–XIV darerum. Erevan: Haykakan