1. Formats in any medium for which the primary target audience is one sex rather than the other. In relation to television genres, soap operas are often characterized as a feminine genre, although it is notable that the actual audience split by sex for British soap operas is usually about 60:40 female to male. Members of a secondary audience may sometimes notice themselves being targeted, as when soap operas incorporate elements of crime drama, or when crime drama switches to a focus on relationships.
2. Narrative forms which, in relation to their relative closure, can be perceived as having masculine or feminine associations (seeclosed forms; open forms). This need not reflect a naïve essentialism, since cultural forms can acquire (as well as lose) cultural connotations over time: seegendering.