Syn: nature-nurture. This is defined as the varying effects of an environmental factor on disease outcome for individuals with different genotypes. Many aspects of health and disease result from the interplay of inherent characteristics and environmental influences. The inherent, mainly genetic determinants influence susceptibility and resistance to invading pathogens, including those causing major communicable diseases, such as smallpox, plague, influenza, and to physical environmental factors, such as solar radiation or exposure to tobacco smoke. The innumerable environmental influences include physical, biological, social, and cultural factors to which individuals react in multiple ways that may be associated with, while not necessarily explaining, the occurrence of many diseases.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.