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The view that location and the physical environment are important factors in the global power structure; a discursive practice with the ‘spatialization of international politics by core powers and hegemonic states’ as its object of study (Ó Tuathail and Agnew in S. Daniels and R. Lee1996). Larsson (2007) Pol. Geog. 26, 2 broadens the scope of geopolitics to include the ‘counter-spatialization’ of international political and economic relations by weak states to deny or mitigate claims made by more powerful states on natural resources and populations. Hyndman (2001) Canad. Geogr./Géogr. canad. 45 argues that immigration law produces a ‘geopolitics of mobility’.

Critical geopolitics

investigates ‘the use of geographical reasoning in the service of state power’ (Dalby (1996) Pol. Geog. 15), exploring the way the production of geopolitical knowledge about the relationship between states both exercises political power and affirms identity. See J. Sharp (2000) and D. Slater (2004). MacDonald (2007) PHG31, 5 offers a critique of the application of classical geopolitics to outer space in the form of astropolitics.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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