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; subclass Pterygota, order Coleoptera)

Family of robust, shiny, black or brown beetles, 7–27 mm long. The head and thorax of the male often have projections, those of females much less commonly so. The antennae are clubbed. The broad, toothed tibiae are used for digging. Eggs are laid in tunnels beneath patches of dung, and dung is carried down to feed larvae; in some species the sexes co-operate. Larvae are white and fleshy, with little reduction of legs. Both adults and larvae stridulate. Some species may feed on underground fungi, others on plants. There are 300 species.

Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

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