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German Confederation


'German Confederation' can also refer to...

German Confederation (1815–66)

German Confederation (1815–66)

Extradition Treaty between Belgium and the North German Confederation, signed at Brussels, 9 February 1870

Consular Convention between the North German Confederation and Spain, signed at Madrid, 22 February 1870

Capitulations between France and the North German Confederation, signed 1, 6, 9, 24 January 1871

Armistice Convention between France and the North German Confederation, signed at Versailles, 28 January 1871

Consular Convention between Italy and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 21 December 1868

Additional Postal Treaty between the North German Confederation and Sweden, signed at Berlin, 20 March 1870

Postal Convention between Great Britain and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 25 April 1870

Armistice between Denmark and the North German Confederation, signed at Malmö, 26 August 1848

Postal Convention between the North German Confederation and Luxemburg, signed at Berlin, 23 November 1867

Postal Transit Treaty between Austria and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 30 November 1867

Navigation Convention between Italy and the North German Confederation, signed at Florence, 14 October 1867

Postal Parcel Convention between Belgium and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 26 March 1868

Postal Convention between Belgium and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 29 May 1868

Postal Treaty between the Netherlands and the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 1 September 1868

Cartel Convention between the States of the German Confederation, signed at Frankfurt, 10 February 1831

Protocol of Negotiations relative to the Establishment of a German Confederation between Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt and the North German Confederation, signed at Versailles, 15 November 1870

Treaty between Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt and the North German Confederation, and Wurtemberg, for the Accession of Wurtemberg to the Constitution of the North German Confederation, signed at Berlin, 25 November 1870

 

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(1815–66)

An alliance of German sovereign states. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) the 38 German states formed a loose grouping to protect themselves against French ambitions. Austria and Prussia lay partly within and partly outside the Confederation. The Austrian chancellor Metternich was the architect of the Confederation and exercised a dominant influence in it through the Federal Diet at Frankfurt, whose members were instructed delegates of state governments. As the rival power to Austria in Germany, Prussia tried to increase its influence over other states by founding a federal customs union or Zollverein. In the Revolutions of 1848 a new constituent assembly was elected to Frankfurt, and tried to establish a constitutional German monarchy, but in 1849 the Austrian emperor refused the crown of a united Germany because it would loosen his authority in Hungary, while the Prussian king, Frederick William IV, refused it because the constitution was too liberal. The pre-1848 Confederation was restored, with Bismarck as one of Prussia's delegates. In 1866 Bismarck proposed that the German Confederation be reorganized to exclude Austria. When Austria opposed this, Bismarck declared the Confederation dissolved and went to war against Austria. In 1867, after Prussia's victory over Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866), the 21 secondary governments above the River Main federated into the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund), with its capital in Berlin and its leadership vested in Prussia. Executive authority rested in a presidency in accordance with the hereditary rights of the rulers of Prussia. The federation's constitution was a model for that of the German Second empire, which replaced it after the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War (1871).

Subjects: World History.


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