founded the Mermnad dynasty by murdering King Candaules and marrying his widow. The word ‘tyrant’ (see tyranny) first appears in Greek applied to Gyges. He started the exploitation of gold from the Pactolus; attacked Miletus and Smyrna, captured Colophon and sent sumptuous offerings to Delphi. He gained Assyrian protection against the Cimmerians, but lost it later by helping Psammetichus I of Egypt. He was killed in a new Cimmerian invasion; his tomb was famous and has been identified in the royal tumulus cemetery at Bin Tepe.
Subjects: Classical Studies.