Franklin H. Giddings


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John Bates Clark (1847—1938)


Herbert Spencer (1820—1903) philosopher, social theorist, and sociologist


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An early American sociologist who applied the evolutionary ideas of Herbert Spencer in comparative and historical analyses. Although his texts now seem dated (see for example Principles of Sociology, 1896; Elements of Sociology, 1898; Studies in the Theory of Human Society, 1922; and The Scientific Study of Human Society, 1924), his work displays several characteristic traits of mainstream American sociology, including an emphasis on quantification and an interest in the theories of psychologists. His earlier work is characterized by psychological evolutionism; his later studies by an enthusiasm for quantification and behaviourism that provided an important stimulus to American neo-positivism.

Subjects: Economics.

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