(1831–1908), founder of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale, was professor of geography there (1855–72), president of the University of California (1872–75), and first president of Johns Hopkins (1876–1901). His stimulating personality, emphasis on creative research and freedom of thought and teaching, and the brilliant scholars he attracted, soon made Johns Hopkins an important American university and medical center. He resigned to accept the presidency of the Carnegie Institute, and remained active in other foundations and societies. His books include University Problems (1898) and The Launching of a University (1906).
From The Oxford Companion to American Literature in Oxford Reference.