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A popularization of the Sanskrit word jnan, which is generally defined as “contemplative or reflective knowledge.” Among Ismailis originating in the Indian subcontinent, the word refers to the part of their tradition whose authorship is attributed to those who converted and preached beginning in the eleventh century. The languages in which the ginans exist reflect the areas from which they originate, including Sind, Punjab, and Gujarat. Recognized as important in preserving in local languages the devotional spirit of Islam.

Subjects: Islam.

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