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Philip Glass

(b. 1937) American composer


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(b Baltimore, 1937).

Amer. composer. Studied fl. at Peabody Cons. at age of 8. Working on a film in Paris with Ravi Shankar awakened interest in non‐Western mus. Under this influence, devised a style whereby within a strong diatonic framework, his work was based on 5 or 6 notes with no harmonic change but powerful rhythmical steadiness. This produced a mus. similar to that of Steve Reich and Terry Riley although he did not then know their work. The result has been called ‘minimalist’ music, because there was maximum repetition of a minimum amount of material. In 1968 founded Philip Glass Ensemble, comprising keyboards (incl. elec. org.) and wind instr. Prin. comps.:

operas:

Einstein on the Beach

, in collab. with Robert Wilson (1974–5);

Madrigal Opera

(Amsterdam, 1980);

Satyagraha

(Rotterdam, 1980);

The Photographer

(Amsterdam, 1982);

The CIVIL WarS

(1982–4);

Akhnaten

(1980–3);

The Juniper Tree

, in collab. with Robert Moran (Cambridge, Mass., 1985);

A Descent into the Maelstrom

(1986);

The Fall of the House of Usher

(Cambridge, Mass., 1988; Llantwit Major, Wales, 1989);

The Making of the Representative for Planet 8

(Houston, 1988; London (ENO) 1988);

1000 Airplanes on the Roof

(Vienna Airport, 1988);

Hydrogen Jukebox

(Philadelphia (concert); Charleston, S. Car., 1990);

The Voyage

(NY Met, 12 Oct. 1992) [Columbus Day]);

The White Raven

(1993);

Orphée

(1993);

Monsters of Grace

(1997);

Galileo Galilei

(2001);

The Sound of a Voice

(2003);

Waiting for the Barbarians

(2005).

orch.:

Music in Similar Motion

(1969);

Façades

, chamber orch. (1981);

Glassworks

, chamber orch. (1981);

Company

, str. (1983);

Dance from Akhnaten

(1984);

Music from the Civil Wars

(Cologne section), opt. ch. (1984);

The Light

(1987); vn. conc. (1987);

The CanyonLowHeroesChoralPlutonian OdeA Toltec Symphony

(1988); Sym. No.1 () (1992), Sym. No.2 (1994), Sym. No.3, str. (1995), Sym. No.4 () (1996), Sym. No.5 () (1999), Sym. No.6 () (2002), Sym. No.7 () (2005), Sym. No.8 (2005);

The Transformer

, orch., synth. (1995); conc., sax. qt., orch. (1995);

Days and Nights in Rocinha

(1997);

Tirol Conc

., pf., orch. (2000);

Dancissimo

(2001); vc. conc. (2001); pf. conc. No.2 (2004).

chorus & orch.:

Music from the Civil Wars

(Rome section), sop., alto, ten., bar., bass, ch. (1984);

Itaipu

(1989);

Psalm 126

, ch., spkr., orch. (1998);

Passion of Ramakrishna

(2006).

chorus:

Wind Song

, unacc. (1968);

Another Look at Harmony

(Part 4), ch., org. (1974);

Fourth Series

, Part I, ch., org. (1978);

VesselsKoyaanisqatsi

(from ), 2 sop., mez., ten., bar., bass, kbd. (1981);

3 Songs

, unacc. (1986).

chamber music:

CompanyMishimaBoczak

Str. Qts. No.1 (1966), No.2 () (1983), No.3 () (1985), No.4 () (1989), No.5 (1993);

Arabesque in memoriam

, fl.;

Strung Out

, amp. vn. (1969);

Modern Love Waltz

, fl., cl., 2 kbd., opt. hp., vib. (1979);

Floe

, fl., sop. sax., ten. sax., 2 hn., pf. (1983);

Prelude to Endgame

, db., 4 timp. (1986);

In the Summer House

, vn., vc., v., synth. (1993);

Songs of Milarepa

, bar., str. orch. (1997);

Dracula

, str. qt., pf., perc. (1998);

The Hours

, pf., hp., cel., str., perc. (2002).

[...]

Subjects: Music.


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