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Smith (2001) Transnational Urbanism notes that each member of the global–local binary has been allocated a distinctive set of attributes; global is a synonym for dynamic, thrusting, open, rational cosmopolitan, dominant, masculinized, and economic, while ‘local’ suggests authentic, closed, static, nostalgic, defensive but defenceless, feminized, and cultural. However, Ley (2004) TIBG29, 2 argues that ‘the global is also the local’.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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