The transfer of glucose residues, usually from the nucleotide-sugar derivative uridine UDP-glucose to a target molecule by a glycosyl transferase. Enzymic glucosylation of collagen is a standard post-translational modification that generates the glucosyl-galactosyl moiety on hydroxylysine residues. Nonenzymic glucosylation of proteins has been speculatively linked with ageing (see AGE) and the level of glucosylation of serum proteins can provide a sensitive, short-term integrative measure of blood glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Glucosylation is also a step in the synthesis of a variety of small molecules to produce glucosides (e.g. the glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin).
Subjects: Medicine and Health.