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A cytokine (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, CSF2, 127 aa, glycosylated) that stimulates the formation of granulocyte or macrophage colonies from myeloid stem cells and is secreted by activated macrophages and T-cells and secretion can be induced from endothelial cells and fibroblasts. It can also be expressed as an integral membrane protein. Recombinant protein has been expressed in yeast (and called sargramostim or molgramostim) and used clinically to stimulate bone marrow regeneration after transplantation or chemotherapy (TNs Leukine, Leukomax, Prokine). There are two receptors, a low-affinity one, CSF2Rα (400 aa) and a higher-affinity one (CSF2Rβ, 889 aa) that is also the high-affinity subunit for the IL-5 receptor (IL-5Rβ). A soluble form of the low-affinity receptor is also found.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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