(b Lincoln, 1901; d Bridge, nr. Canterbury, 1990).
Eng. conductor. Lincoln Cath. choir sch. 1910–14. Lived in Toronto and attended univ. there, studying with Healey Willan. Returned to Eng. to study RCM 1925–8. Org., St Alban's, Holborn, 1929–36, where he cond. f. Brit. ps. of Bruckner sacred works and early works by Britten. Opera début cond. Carmen in semi‐amateur perf., London 1936. Became ass. to Albert Coates at CG 1936. Ass. cond. Royal Choral Soc. 1936–9. Cond., Wessex PO, Bournemouth, 1940–3. Cond. at SW Opera from 1944. Cond. f.p. of Peter Grimes, June 1945. Cond. SW Opera‐Ballet 1945–6. Glyndebourne début 1946 (The Rape of Lucretia). On mus. staff of CG from 1946, but went abroad to assist Furtwängler, Krauss, and Knappertsbusch. Cond. Tannhäuser, SW 1960. Overdue recognition as a Wagner cond. came in 1968 when he cond. SW Mastersingers. This was followed by hugely successful cycles, in English, of The Ring from 1973. Cond. Parsifal at CG 1971, Tristan und Isolde with WNO (recorded) 1979, Tristan (ENO 1981), The Valkyrie (WNO 1984), Parsifal (ENO 1986). CBE 1975. Knighted 1985.