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In the USA, the term graham designates bread, biscuits, etc. made from wholemeal flour (‘It's got graham crackers instead of crust,’ John Steinbeck, The Wayward Bus, 1947). It comes from the name of Dr Sylvester Graham (1794–1851), an American physician who expounded various theories of dietary reform. He was an ardent advocate of vegetarianism (in mid-nineteenth-century America vegetarianism was named Grahamism after him), and laid great emphasis on the importance of eating flour made from the whole unrefined grain, including particularly the bran. His old house in Northampton, Massachusetts, is today a health-food restaurant.

Subjects: Cookery, Food, and Drink.

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