Gregory XII

(c. 1325—1415)

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Gregory XII (c.1325–1415)

Gregory XII (30 Nov. 1406–4 July 1415)

Gregory XII (30 Nov. 1406–4 July 1415)

Gregory C. Kennedy and Keith Neilson, editors. Military Education: Past, Present, and Future. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. 2002. Pp. xii, 239. $64.95

T. Gregory Garvey. Creating the Culture of Reform in Antebellum America. Athens: University of Georgia Press. 2006. Pp. xii, 263. $39.95

The Twighlight of a Military Tradition: Italian Aristocrats and European Conflict, 1560–1800. By Gregory Hanlon (New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers Inc., 1998. xii plus 371pp.)

Of Victorians and Vegetarians: The Vegetarian Movement in Nineteenth-Century Britain. By James Gregory. (London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007, xii plus 313 pp., Ł57.50)

Dwight Macdonald and the politics Circle: The Challenge of Cosmopolitan Democracy. By Gregory D. Sumner. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. xii, 272 pp. $32.50, ISBN 08014-3020-8.)

Mansfield and Vietnam: A Study in Rhetorical Adaptation. By Gregory Allen Olson. (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995. xii, 349 pp. $39.95, ISBN 0-87013-386-1.)

Consuming Nature: Environmentalism in the Fox River Valley, 1850–1950. By Gregory Summers. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. xii + 256 pp. Illustration, notes, bibliography, and index. Cloth $29.95

Martin Heinzelmann. Gregory of Tours: History and Society in the Sixth Century. Translated by Christopher Carroll. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2001. Pp. xii, 235. $59.95

Gregory D. Black. The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies, 1940–1975. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1997. Pp. xii, 302. Cloth $59.95, paper $17.95

Gregory J. W. Urwin, editor. Black Flag Over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 2004. Pp. xii, 265. $45.00

Gregory Crane. Thucydides and the Ancient Simplicity: The Limits of Political Realism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1998. Pp. xii, 348. $45.00

Gregory Claeys Imperial Sceptics: British Critics of Empire, 1850–1920. (Ideas in Context, number 97.) New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010. Pp. xii, 333. $95.00.

Democratic Religion: Freedom, Authority, and Church Discipline in the Baptist South, 1785–1900. By Gregory A. Wills. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. xii, 195 pp. $39.95, ISBN 0-19-510412-9.)

The Big Tent: The Traveling Circus in Georgia, 1820–1930. By Gregory J. Renoff. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008. xii, 235 pp. $34.95, ISBN 978-0-8203-2892-8.)

Cadres for Conservatism: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of the Contemporary Right. By Gregory L. Schneider. (New York: New York University Press, 1999. xii, 263 pp. $40.00, ISBN 0-8147-8108-X.)

Gregory of Nyssa and the Grasp of Faith: Union, Knowledge, and Divine Presence. By Martin Laird. Pp. xii + 240. (Oxford Early Christian Studies.) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. isbn 0 19 926799 5. £50


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(30 Nov. 1406–4 July 1415: d. 18 Oct. 1417)

Successor of Innocent VII, Angelo Correr was born of noble family at Venice c.1325, and was successively bishop of Castello, Venice, (1380), Latin patriarch of Constantinople (1390), cardinal priest of S. Marco (1405), and papal secretary. In their eagerness to see the end of the Great Schism (1378–1417), each of the fourteen Roman cardinals at the conclave following Innocent VII's death swore that, if elected, he would abdicate provided Antipope Benedict XIII did the same or should die; also that he would not create new cardinals except to maintain parity of numbers with the Avignon cardinals, and that within three months he would enter into negotiations with his rival about a place of meeting. A learned and widely read octogenarian, of exemplary austerity but vacillating character, Angelo owed his elevation primarily to the keen concern he had hitherto shown for the restoration of unity: he chose the title Gregory to honour the pope who had brought the papacy back to Rome.

At first it seemed that the hopes everywhere aroused by his election would be speedily fulfilled. Gregory immediately announced to the Christian world his readiness in appropriate circumstances to renounce his title as he had promised during the conclave, and sent a delegation (led by an inexperienced and unsuitable nephew) to Benedict XIII at Marseilles to agree a place where the two might confer. After stormy discussions it was decided (21 Apr. 1407) that, each accompanied by his cardinals and with security guaranteed, they should meet at Savona, a city belonging then to the Avignon obedience, by 1 Nov. at latest. From this point, however, Gregory's attitude altered; personal doubts and fears, combined with pressures from quarters apprehensive of what might ensue if he had to resign (from King Ladislas of Naples (1386–1414), the kings of Hungary and Bohemia, who distrusted the influence of the French king on Benedict, and even from the nephews who basked in his indulgence), made him postpone, and eventually refuse, the planned meeting. For months the two popes, Gregory at Lucca, where he arrived on 28 Jan. 1408, and Benedict at Portovenere, engaged in sterile negotiations; it was evident that, for all his protestations, Benedict had no intention of stepping down, while Gregory had good reasons to fear his hostile designs. As the negotiations dragged on, Gregory's cardinals became increasingly restive. An open break became inevitable when Gregory, suspicious of their loyalty, broke his pre-election promise and on 4 May announced the creation of four new cardinals (including two of his nephews). All but three of his original college now left him and fled to Pisa; from there, in a letter addressed to him, they appealed over his head to Christ and a general council, and circulated a letter to Christian princes declaring their zeal for union. They then joined forces with four of Benedict's cardinals at Livorno, made a solemn agreement with them to establish the peace of the church by a general council, and in early July sent out with them a united summons for such a council to meet at Pisa in March 1409.


Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Christianity.

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