Pope from 1572. His pontificate was notable for its pro-Spanish temporal policy and its vigorous promotion of the Counter-Reformation. He was committed to implementing the decrees of the Council of Trent, and established numerous seminaries, entrusting many of them to the Jesuits, who also received from him a monopoly of missions to China and Japan. He approved St Philip Neri's Oratorians (1575) and the Discalced Carmelites (1580). He also promulgated the Gregorian Calendar.
Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Christianity.