Pope from 1831. Soon after his election revolution broke out in the Papal states and was quelled only by the intervention of Austria. The troubles continued, and for most of his pontificate Gregory's relations with foreign powers remained strained. He condemned Liberalism in the person of F. R. de Lamennais (1834) and also the semi-rationalistic theology of G. Hermes (1835). In the field of foreign missions, he erected new bishoprics and vicariates and encouraged the formation of a native clergy.