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Grignard reagents


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A class of organometallic compounds of magnesium, with the general formula RMgX, where R is an organic group and X a halogen atom (e.g. CH3MgCl, C2H5MgBr, etc.). They actually have the structure R2Mg.MgCl2, and can be made by reacting a haloalkane with magnesium in ether; they are rarely isolated but are extensively used in organic synthesis, when they are made in one reaction mixture. Grignard reagents have a number of reactions that make them useful in organic synthesis. With methanal they give a primary alcohol CH3MgCl+HCHO → CH3CH2OH Other aldehydes give a secondary alcohol CH3CHO+CH3MgCl → (CH3)2CHOH With alcohols, hydrocarbons are formed CH3MgCl+C2H5OH → C2H5CH3 Water also gives a hydrocarbon CH3MgCl+H2O → CH4 The compounds are named after their discoverer, the French chemist Victor Grignard (1871–1935).

CH3MgCl+HCHO → CH3CH2OH

CH3CHO+CH3MgCl → (CH3)2CHOH

CH3MgCl+C2H5OH → C2H5CH3

CH3MgCl+H2O → CH4

Subjects: Chemistry.


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