theologian. After attending a synod (1536) called by Hermann, Abp. of Cologne, to combat the teaching of the Reformers, Gropper drew up an Enchiridion in which he put forward an early form of the doctrine of ‘double justice’. At the time it was well received as a possible basis for reconciliation. He took part in the Conference at Ratisbon in 1541. When the Abp. of Cologne became a Protestant, Gropper secured his deposition and the restoration of Catholicism in Cologne.
Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Christianity.