(fl c. 1564–86). Danish sculptor of Dutch birth. His earliest activity as a sculptor is represented by a series of some 87 tomb slabs and funerary monuments produced for the North Jutland nobility by a workshop with which he was probably associated. Stylistic characteristics common to these are the use of hard grey or yellow limestone, and the precision of the chiselling and lettering. The tomb slab in the church at Aalsø, near Grenå, for Nils Krabbe til Hessel (d 1564) and his wife Anne Urup (d 1568) is the earliest tomb carving associated with Grøningen; in it the crisp chiselling of the figures, the symbols of the Evangelists and the coats of arms, as well as the female figure's distinctive pose with arms crossed, are the hallmarks of his work. They are evident also in the tomb of Christen and Peder Skram (1579) in the parish church of Østbirk, near Skandeborg; the sculptor introduced motifs from Northern Renaissance architectural designs into the frame around the figures. Grøningen's most classical tomb design is the epitaph and alcove tomb (Uth Church, nr Vejle) for Holger Rosenkrantz (d 1575) and his wives Mette Krognos (d 1558) and Karin Gyldenstjerne, in which he introduced Italianate architectural forms into the pedimented portal design of the tomb.
From The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art in Oxford Reference.
Subjects: Renaissance Art.