A subfamily of the TGFβ superfamily, involved in growth and differentiation (Gdfs). Gdf1 (372 aa) acts early in the pathway of gene activation that leads to the establishment of left-right asymmetry and mutations are associated with congenital heart defects such as transposition of the great arteries and the tetralogy of Fallot. Gdf2 (429 aa) is bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 which may be a differentiation factor for cholinergic central nervous system neurons. Gdf3 (364 aa) has been implicated in testis carcinoma and deposition of adipose tissue. Gdf4 is unreported. Gdf5 (BMP-14; cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1, 501 aa) is important in bone repair; Gdf6 (455 aa) is BMP13; Gdf7 (450 aa) is BMP12;. In mice Gdf5, Gdf6, and Gdf7 are all required for normal formation of bones and joints in the limbs, skull, and axial skeleton. Gdf8 (375 aa) is myostatin. Gdf9 (454 aa) plays an important role in somatic cell differentiation and the formation of primordial follicles in hamster ovary. Gdf10 (478 aa) is BMP3B, closely related to BMP3 but with different tissue distribution. Gdf11 (407 aa) is BMP11, important in anterior/posterior patterning of the axial skeleton. The next reported Gdf of the series is Gdf15 (308 aa), macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1).
Subjects: Medicine and Health.