Viennese architect, born Grünbaum, he settled in the USA in 1938. He established his own firm in Los Angeles (1951), specializing in out- of-town shopping-centres including the Northland Center, Detroit, Mich. (1954), the Southdale Center, Minneapolis, MN (1956), and the first inner-city enclosed shopping-mall at Midtown Plaza, Rochester, NY (1962). He also designed The Mall, Fresno, CA (1968). His ideas are encapsulated in his The Heart of Our Cities (1964, but have been questioned by several commentators. He was virtually the inventor of the mid-C20 shopping-mall, which has proved a mixed blessing.
Fitch (1961);Gruen (1964, 1973);Gruen & L. Smith (1960);Hardwick (2004);J. Jacobs (1961);Tunnard & Pushkarev (1981)
Subjects: Architecture — Art.