king of Gwynedd (1081–1137). He was the son of Cynan ab Iago, a descendant of Rhodri Mawr but an exile in Ireland. With Viking and Norman aid, he returned to re‐establish Rhodri's line in Gwynedd (1075), but failed to overcome rivals. In a second foray (1081), again with Viking aid, he allied with Rhys ap Tewdwr in Deheubarth, but was betrayed to the Normans and imprisoned. He took part in the major uprising of 1094, but by 1098 was again in Ireland. Only with Norman agreement did he return permanently (1099) and rule in Anglesey, whence he consolidated his control of Gwynedd, and created a stable, prosperous kingdom.
Subjects: British History.