An agriculturally rich landscape investigated by Michel Ponsich through the 1970s and 1980s to reveal the archaeologically rich Romanized landscape of ancient Baetis. In the lower part of the valley, around Sevilla, Ècija, and Córdoba, good water transport combined with productive land and a Mediterranean climate created conditions favourable to a villa‐centred economy producing primarily olive oil but also wheat and wine for domestic use and export. Upstream from Córdoba, in the region of Bujalance, villas continued to dominate the landscape in the south and southeast, but northwards and westwards the settlement patterns consists of small towns, spaced about 10 km apart, from which workers went out each day to the fields around about.
M. Ponsich, 1987, Implantation rurale antique sur le Bas‐Guadalquivir III. Madrid: Publications de la Casa de Velázquez Série Archéologie