King of Sweden (1523–60) and founder of the Vasa dynasty. He fought against the Danes in 1517–18, but was successful only after 1520, thanks to financial and naval backing from the city of Lübeck. His election as king ended the 126-year-old Union of Kalmar by which Sweden had been subordinated to Denmark. He created a national army of volunteers and built an efficient navy. He also modernized the economy, and in 1527 broke with the Roman Catholic Church for mainly political reasons. In 1544 the Swedish crown was made hereditary in the Vasa family.
Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).