The colloquial name for a type II topoisomerase (q.v.) of E. coli that converts relaxed closed-circular, duplex DNA to a negatively superhelical form both in vitro and in vivo. This enzyme prepares the DNA for proteins that require unwinding of the duplex or single-stranded regions in order to participate in such processes as replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. Several drugs are known to inhibit gyrase, including adriamycin, naladixic acid, and novobiocin. See Chronology, 1976, Gellert et al.; replisome.
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.