1 The final epoch in the Pennsylvanian, comprising the Klazminskian and Noginskian Ages (these are also stage names in eastern European stratigraphy), which commenced 303.9Ma ago. The Gzhelian is preceded by the Kasimovian Epoch, followed by the Asselian Age (Early Permian), and has its upper boundary (the Carbo–Permian boundary) dated at 299Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding eastern European series, which is roughly contemporaneous with the upper Virgilian (N. America) and upper Stephanian (western Europe).
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