contemplative writer. She spoke the dialect of Brabant and probably belonged to a community of Beguines. Her Visions (treatises in the form of letters), Poems in Stanzas, and Poems in Couplets all treat of the union of the soul with God who transcends all union. Though her ‘love mysticism’ (Brautmystik) was in the tradition of St Bernard, she was pre-eminent in assimilating this and adapting the concepts and terminology of courtly love for Christian ends. Some of her Poems in Couplets (25–9) are now attributed to a follower, ‘Hadewijch II’; the authorship of others (17–24) is disputed.