Hadrian IV

(c. 1100—1159)

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Nicholas Breakspear, Pope from 1154; the only Englishman to hold the Papacy. He secured the execution of Arnold of Brescia and exacted full homage from Frederick I (Barbarossa) before consenting to crown him. His claim that the Emperor held his crown as a beneficium from the Pope precipitated a quarrel which became acute under Alexander III. The authenticity of his bull granting the overlordship of Ireland to Henry II of England, though long disputed, is now generally accepted.

Subjects: Christianity.

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