A Sōtō Zen monk who received early training under Daiun Sōgaku Harada (1871–1961). Like his master, he sought to correct what he felt were the overly quietistic propensities of Sōtō by bringing in Rinzai elements, in particular use of the kōan and a new emphasis on the active search for enlightenment (bodhi). Feeling that Zen was best practised in everyday life, he founded the Sambōkyōdan in 1954, a fellowship in which he trained lay-people in and around Tokyo. At this time he also broke formal ties with the Sōtō school. In 1962, already 71 years of age, he came to the United States and lived an active peripatetic life thereafter, travelling extensively across the country and holding sesshin often. His students included many figures that would later become influential in the establishment of Zen in America.notably Roshi Philip Kapleau.