Persian Sufi preacher and missionary. Ideal of piety and spiritual valor in Sufi tradition and broader Islamic cultural context. Claimed to have experienced an ecstatic sense of spiritual oneness with God, declaring, “Ana al-haqq” (I am Truth [i.e., God). Claimed a religious authority greater than that of caliphs and religious scholars due to his possession of divine presence. Executed in spectacular fashion in Baghdad for heresy, with his remains cremated so that no tomb could be erected and serve as the center of a cult. Revered by Sufis as a martyr.