Malian offshoot of Tijani Sufi brotherhood. Advocated social reform programs, stressed equality of all people, supported liberation of women, and opposed wealth of establishment religious leaders. Distinguished by veneration of its founder, Shaykh Hamallah. Some followers changed shahadah to declare, “There is no god but God and Hamallah is our shaykh.” Despite its leader's espousal of pacifism, some followers were involved in the massacre of a rival nomadic group, resulting in harsh suppression by the French. Two types of movements grew out of the massacre experience: a series of enthusiastic but short-lived jihads and a quietist Sufi tradition that became the prototype for African socialism, nationalism, and mobilization of the masses.